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Edward Y. Abbo
President and Chief Technology Officer
Edward Y. Abbo
Mr. Abbo has served as our Chief Technology Officer since July 2011. He previously served as our Chief Executive Officer from September 2009 to July 2011 and a member of our board of directors from August 2009 to November 2020.
Prior to joining us, Mr. Abbo served as Senior Vice President of Engineering and Chief Technology Officer for Siebel Systems from July 1994 until it merged with Oracle Corporation in January 2006, and Senior Vice President of Oracle Corporation from January 2006 to July 2009.
Mr. Abbo holds a B.S. in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Princeton University and an M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
President and Chief Product Officer
Mr. Behzadi has served as our Chief Product Officer since October 2016. Mr. Behzadi previously served as our Senior Vice President and Chief Product Officer from October 2016 to July 2020, our Senior Vice President of Products and Engineering from July 2012 to October 2016, and our Vice President of Engineering from January 2010 to July 2012.
Prior to joining us, Mr. Behzadi held various leadership roles with Siebel Systems from January 2001 until it merged with Oracle Corporation in January 2006, and then served as Director, Application Development at Oracle Corporation from January 2006 to January 2010.
Mr. Behzadi holds a B.A. in Economics from the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Senior Vice President and General Counsel
Mr. Lutton has served as our Senior Vice President and General Counsel since September 2021. Prior to joining us, Mr. Lutton was Senior Director of Legal, Hardware Products and Services at Google, from 2018 to 2021. From 2012 to 2018, Mr. Lutton served as Vice President and General Counsel of Nest, which was acquired by Alphabet. From 2001 to 2011, Mr. Lutton served as Associate General Counsel and Chief Patent Counsel at Apple. He also worked in private practice from 1993 to 1999 in Texas and California and served as a judicial law clerk to Circuit Judge Randall R. Rader on the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
Mr. Lutton holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Rice University and a J.D. from Columbia University.
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Mr. Manzoor has served as our SVP, Chief Administrative Officer, and Chief Financial Officer since December 2021. From July 2019 to November 2021, Mr. Manzoor served as Chief Financial Officer of Telenav. From Feb 2006 to June 2019, Mr. Manzoor held several leadership positions within Hewlett Packard Enterprise, including as the CFO and Vice President of the Storage, Big Data, and Value Compute Division.
Mr. Manzoor holds a B.A. in Business from University of the Punjab, an M.B.A. from the Asian Institute of Technology and an M.S. in Accounting from New Mexico State University.
Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer
Mr. Gerber has served as our Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer since January 2022. Mr. Gerber brings over 25 years of enterprise cloud software and marketing management experience to his role, at public and private software companies and global marketing agencies. Prior to C3 AI, he served as Chief Marketing Officer and Chief Alliances Officer of Vlocity, Inc., an industry cloud CRM company, acquired by Salesforce in June 2020.
Mr. Gerber holds an M.B.A. from Harvard University and a Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering from the University of Virginia.
Board of Directors
Thomas M. Siebel
Thomas M. Siebel
Mr. Siebel is the founder of our company and has served as the Chairman of our board of directors since January 2009, and as our Chief Executive Officer since July 2011. Prior to founding our company, Mr. Siebel founded and served as the Chief Executive Officer of Siebel Systems, a global CRM software company, from 1993 until it merged with Oracle Corporation in January 2006. Mr. Siebel served in various leadership positions with Oracle Corporation from January 1984 to September 1990. Mr. Siebel currently serves as a member of the College of Engineering boards at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the University of California, Berkeley. He was elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in April 2013. Mr. Siebel holds a B.A. in History, an M.B.A., and an M.S. in Computer Science, each from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is the author of four books, including most recently the best-selling Digital Transformation: Survive and Thrive in an Era of Mass Extinction (RosettaBooks, 2019).
Honors and Awards
- Entrepreneur of the Year – EY, 2018
- Glassdoor Top CEO – 2018
- Honorary Ph.D. – Politecnico di Torino, 2018
- Entrepreneur of the Year – EY, 2017
- Best Places to Work, 100% CEO approval rating – Glassdoor, 2017
- Most Admired CEO Lifetime Achievement Award – San Francisco Business Times, 2016
- Academy of Arts and Sciences, Elected Member – April 2013
- #3 of the World’s Top 25 Philanthropists – Barron’s, November 2010
- Woodrow Wilson Award for Corporate Citizenship
- Engineering at Illinois Hall of Fame – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010
- #5 of the World’s Top 25 Philanthropists – Barron’s, 2009
- Top 50 Philanthropists – BusinessWeek 2007, 2008
- Honorary Ph.D. Engineering – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2006
- Thomas M. Siebel, Master Entrepreneur of the Year – Ernst & Young, 2003
- Entrepreneurial Company of the Year – Harvard Business School, 2003
- Hall of Fame – CRM Magazine, 2003
- CEO of the Year – Industry Week, 2002
- Top 25 Managers in Global Business – BusinessWeek, 1999 to 2002
- Top 10 CEOs of 2000 – Investor’s Business Daily, 2000
- The World’s Most Influential Software Company – BusinessWeek, 2000
- The Most Influential Company in IT – Intelligent Enterprise, 2000
- Fastest Growing Technology Company – Deloitte & Touche, 1999
- Fastest Growing Company in America – Fortune, 1999
- Digital Transformation: Survive and Thrive in an Era of Mass Extinction, RosettaBooks, July 2019
- “Digital Transformation: The Post-Industrial Utility,” Aspenia Magazine, June 2018
- “Why Digital Transformation Is Now on the CEO’s Shoulders,” McKinsey Quarterly 2018 Number 1
- “Thought Leaders Speak Out: Key Trends Driving Change in the Electric Power Industry,” The Edison
- Foundation Institute for Electric Innovation (IEI), 2015
- Advanced Smart Grid, introduction, Artech House, 2015
- “The Internet of Energy,” Electric Perspectives magazine, 2015
- Written Testimony to the United States House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Committee,
- Subcommittee on Energy and Power, 2015
- “Big Data and the Smart Grid: Is Hadoop the Answer?”, Stanford Energy Journal, 2014
- Taking Care of eBusiness, Doubleday, 2001
- Cyber Rules, Doubleday, 1999
- Virtual Selling, Free Press, 1996
Patricia A. House
Patricia A. House
Ms. House is a co-founder of our company and has served as the Vice Chairman of our board of directors since January 2009. Until it merged with Oracle Corporation in January 2006, Ms. House served as a co-founder of Siebel Systems and held various leadership positions most recently as Executive Vice President. Ms. House has served on the board of directors of The William and Flora Hewlett, Foundation since March 2011 and on the board of directors the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace since October 2010. She also previously served on the board of directors of Levi Strauss & Co from July 2003 until November 2007. Ms. House holds a B.A. in Education from Western Michigan University.
Dr. Rice has served as a member of our board of directors since December 2009. Since September 2020, Dr. Rice has served as the Tad and Dianne Taube Director of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. In addition, Dr. Rice has served as the Denning Professor of Global Business and the Economy for the Stanford Graduate School of Business since September 2010.
Since March 2009, Dr. Rice has served as the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow of Public Policy for the Hoover Institution, Stanford University, as a Senior Fellow for the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University, and as a Professor of Political Science for Stanford University. Dr. Rice has also served as a partner at RiceHadleyGates LLC, an international strategic consulting firm that Dr. Rice founded, since November 2009.
From January 2005 to January 2009, Dr. Rice served as the Secretary of State of the United States of America and from January 2001 to January 2005, Dr. Rice served as Chief National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Dr. Rice currently serves on the boards of directors of C3 AI and Makena Capital Management, LLC, a private endowment firm.
Dr. Rice holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Denver, an M.A. in Political Science from the University of Notre Dame, and a B.A. in Political Science from the University of Denver.
Richard C. Levin
Richard C. Levin
Dr. Levin has served as a member of our board of directors since August 2010. From April 2014 until June 2017, Dr. Levin was the Chief Executive Officer of Coursera, an online learning platform company.
Prior to his role at Coursera, Dr. Levin served as President of Yale University from July 1993 to June 2013. Dr. Levin is currently a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society and is a former trustee of The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Dr. Levin served as a director of American Express Co. from January 2007 to May 2019. Dr. Levin also served as an advisor on President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.
Dr. Levin holds a B.A. from Stanford University, a B.Litt. from Oxford University, and a Ph.D. in Economics from Yale University.
Michael G. McCaffery
Michael G. McCaffery
Mr. McCaffery has served as a member of our board of directors since March 2009. Since December 2005, Mr. McCaffery has served as the Managing Director for Makena Capital Management, an investment management firm, and was Chief Executive Officer of Makena Capital Management from December 2005 to January 2013. Since February 2015, Mr. McCaffery has also served on the board of directors for NVIDIA Corporation, a technology company.
Mr. McCaffery holds a B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, a B.A. Honours and an M.A. in Politics, Philosophy and Economics from Merton College at Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, and an M.B.A. from Stanford Graduate School of Business.
S. Shankar Sastry
S. Shankar Sastry
Dr. Sastry has served as a member of our board of directors since January 2009. Dr. Sastry has served in a number of roles with the University of California, Berkeley, including as the Thomas Siebel Professor of Computer Science since January 2019, the director of the Blum Center for Developing Economies since February 2007, and the co-director of the C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute since March 2020. He also served the Dean and Roy W. Carlson Professor of Engineering from July 2007 to June 2018 and as Chairman, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley from January 2001 through June 2004. From October 2004 to July 2007, Dr. Sastry served the Director of the Center for Information Technology in the Interests of Society, an interdisciplinary center spanning UC Berkeley, Davis, Merced and Santa Cruz.
From November 1999 to March 2001, he was the Director of the Information Technology Office at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2001 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2004, and elected as a Fellow of IEEE in 1994, and International Federation of Automatic Control Fellow in 2016. Dr. Sastry received the President of India Gold Medal in 1977, the IBM Faculty Development in 1983, and the NSF U.S. Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1985. In 1990, he received the Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council in 1990, and in 2005, he received the Ragazzini Award for Distinguished Accomplishments in teaching. Dr. Sastry also received the distinguished Alumnus Award of the Indian Institute of Technology in 1999, the Distinguished Alumnus of the International House at UC Berkeley, and the David Marr prize for the best paper at the International Conference in Computer Vision in 1999.
Dr. Sastry holds a B.Tech. from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and an M.S. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, an M.A. in Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences each from the University of California, Berkeley.
Mr. Sewell has served as a member of our board of directors since May 2017. Mr. Sewell served as the Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Apple Inc., a technology company, from September 2009 to December 2017.
From October 1996 to September 2009, Mr. Sewell served in various leadership positions with Intel Corporation, including as Senior Vice President, General Counsel from September 2002 to September 2009. Since January 2013, Mr. Sewell has served on the board of directors for Vail Resorts, Inc., a mountain resort company.
Mr. Sewell holds a B.S. from Lancaster University (U.K.) and a J.D. from The George Washington University Law School.
Lisa A. Davis
Lisa A. Davis
Ms. Davis has served as a member of our board of directors since December 2021. From August 2014 to March 2020, Ms. Davis served as a member of the Managing Board for Siemens AG, the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe, with responsibility as CEO for Siemens Gas and Power, which includes Power Generation, Power Services, Oil and Gas, Transmission and New Fuels, and operates in over 80 countries. During her tenure at Siemens, she also served as Chair and Chief Executive Officer of Siemens Corporation USA and as a member of the Board of Directors of Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy SA.
From 2012 to August 2014, Ms. Davis served as Executive Vice President, Strategy, Portfolio & Alternative Energy of Royal Dutch Shell, UK. Prior to that, Ms. Davis served in various capacities and leadership positions with Royal Dutch Shell, Texaco USA and Exxon Corporation in upstream and downstream operations and project development.
Ms. Davis currently serves as a member of the board of directors of Penske Automotive Group, an international transportation services company; Kosmos Energy Limited, an international E&P company; Air Products and Chemicals, an international industrial gasses product and project company; and Phillips 66, an international downstream oil and gas company. Ms. Davis previously served on the board of directors of Spectris plc, an industrial productivity enhancement products company.
Ms. Davis holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley.
Jim Hagemann Snabe
Jim Hagemann Snabe
Jim Hagemann Snabe is the former co-CEO of SAP AG. He is now Chairman A. P. Moller Maersk (DK), and Nominated Chairman Siemens AG (D) Vice Chairman Allianz SE (D). He is member of the Board of Trustees at World Economic Forum (CH).
With 25 years of experience in the IT industry, Jim Hagemann Snabe is focused on leadership around innovation, digitization and societal progress. As co-CEO of SAP Jim, together with Bill McDermott, was instrumental in driving the strategic development of SAP to double the value of the company and play a more responsible role in society. In 2013 he and co-CEO Bill McDermott were ranked #2 on Glassdoor.com’s listing of the top fifty highest rated CEOs, based on their 99 percent approval rating from employees.
In his capacity as a global business leader, Jim is involved in a number of activities focused on societal progress and the role of business in society. Snabe’s views on leadership is shaped by his commitment to solving societal issues and his trust in human potential.
Snabe received a master’s degree in operational research from the Aarhus School of Business in Denmark. In 2016 Jim was appointed Adjunct Professor at Copenhagen Business School based on his work around digital transformation and its impact on business and society. He lives with his family in Copenhagen, Denmark.
Jim Hagemann Snabe has a master’s degree in Operational Research, University of Aarhus; Adjunct Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
Stephen M. Ward Jr.
Stephen M. Ward Jr.
Mr. Ward has served as a member of our board of directors since January 2009. Mr. Ward served as the Chief Executive Officer for Lenovo Group Limited, the international personal computer company formed by the acquisition of IBM’s personal computer division by Lenovo, from April 2005 to January 2006. Prior to that acquisition, Mr. Ward held a number of management positions with IBM from September 1978 to April 2005, including Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Personal Systems and Retail Systems Group from March 2003 to April 2005, General Manager of the Industrial Sector from February 2000 to March 2003, General Manager of the Thinkpad and Mobile division from January 1998 to March 2000 and Chief Information Officer from February 1997 to March 2000.
Mr. Ward has also served as a member of the board of directors for Carpenter Technology Corporation, a specialty metals company, since March 2001. From December 2014 until its sale to The Boeing Company in October 2018, Mr. Ward served as a member the board of directors of KLX Inc., an aerospace solutions and supply chain company, and since September 2018, he served as a member of the board of directors of KLX Energy Services Holdings, Inc., an oilfield services company spun out from KLX Inc.
Mr. Ward also previously served as a member of the board of directors of E2Open, a supply chain SAS company he co-founded, from January 2001 to March 2015, E-Ink Corporation, a maker of electronic paper displays, from December 2006 to December 2009 and QD Vision, Inc., a nanomaterials product company, from June 2014 until its sale to Samsung in November 2016.
Mr. Ward holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.
Professor, writer, Honorary Member of the Council of State, Special Adviser to the President of the Republic from 1981 to 1991, founder and first President of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London from 1991 to 1993, Jacques Attali (www.attali.com) is currently CEO of A&A, an international consulting firm (www.aeta.net) specialised in new technologies, based in Paris, and President of PlaNet Finance (www.planetfinance.org), an international non-profit organisation assisting microfinance institutions all over the world. PlaNet Finance is the most important world institution of support to the microfinance. PlaNet Finance advises and finances the development of the microfinance in 80 countries.
He founded Action Contre la Faim in 1980 and the European programme Eurêka (a major European programme on new technologies that invented, among other things, the MP3). In 1989, he also launched an international programme of action against the disastrous floods in Bangladesh. Jacques Attali then advised the Secretary General of the United Nations on the risks of nuclear proliferation. He is at the origin of the higher education reform, known as LMD, to bring all European degrees into line.
Jacques Attali has a doctorate in Economics and is a graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique (first in the class of 1963), the Ecole des Mines, the Institut d’Etudes Politiques and the Ecole Nationale de l’Administration. He taught Economic Theory at the Ecole Polytechnique, the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées and the University of Paris-Dauphine. He has received honorary doctorates from several foreign universities and is a member of the Universal Academy of Cultures.
Jacques Attali is a columnist for the magazine L’Express. He has written 65 books, translated into more than 30 languages, with over eight million copies sold all over the world, including essays (dealing with a wide variety of subjects ranging from mathematical economics to music), biographies, novels, children’s tales and plays. Dr. Attali has been designated as one of the three most influential intellectuals in France and one of the 100 most influential worldwide.
On April 2011, he was honored with the Corporate Citizenship award from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Vice Admiral Dennis V. McGinn, Ret.
Vice Admiral Dennis V. McGinn, Ret.
Vice Admiral Dennis V. McGinn, Ret. served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Energy, Installations and Environment from September 2013 until January 2017. In this role, Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., led the transformation of naval installations toward greater resiliency though energy efficiency, microgrids and other technologies. Previously, Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., served in the United States Navy for 35 years attaining the rank of Vice Admiral. Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Warfare Requirements and Programs, overseeing the development of future Navy capabilities, and previously commanded the United States Third Fleet. While in the Navy, he served as a naval aviator, test pilot, aircraft carrier commanding officer and national security strategist. Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., is a former President of the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE) where he led efforts to communicate the economic, security and environmental benefits of renewable energy.
Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., is also a past member of the Steering Committee of the Energy Future Coalition, the United States Energy Security Council and the Bipartisan Center Energy Board and the past Co-Chairman of the CNA Military Advisory Board. He has also been an International Senior Fellow at the Rocky Mountain Institute. Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., holds a BS in Naval Engineering from the U.S. Naval Academy. Vice Admiral McGinn, Ret., was also a participant in the National Security Program at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government.
Rick Ledgett began his NSA career in 1988 and has served in operational, management, and technical leadership positions at the branch, division, office, and group levels. Mr. Ledgett served as the 15th Deputy Director of the National Security Agency. From 2012 to 2013 he was the Director of the NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center, responsible for round-the-clock cryptologic activities to discover and counter adversary cyber efforts. Prior to NTOC he served in several positions from 2010 to 2012 in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence in both the collection and cyber mission areas. He was the first National Intelligence Manager for Cyber, serving as principal advisor to the Director of National Intelligence on all cyber matters, leading development of the Unified Intelligence Strategy for Cyber, and coordinating cyber activities across the Intelligence Community (IC). Previous positions at NSA include Deputy Director for Analysis and Production (2009-2010), Deputy Director for Data Acquisition (2006-2009), Assistant Deputy Director for Data Acquisition (2005-2006), and Chief, NSA/CSS Pacific (2002-2005). He also served in a joint IC operational activity, and as an instructor and course developer at the National Cryptologic School.
He led the NSA Media Leaks Task Force from June 2013 to January 2014, and was responsible for integrating and overseeing the totality of NSA’s efforts surrounding the unauthorized disclosures of classified information by a former NSA affiliate.
Franck Cohen previously served as President of EMEA and led the Digital Core & Industry Solutions for SAP.
Cohen is a global leader in using the cloud to transform ERP, known for taking radical approaches to business processes. He is an innovative Enterprise software executive with over 30 years of global experience. While at SAP, Cohen was President of EMEA for seven years and led the Digital Core Lab which was responsible for developing all of the company’s industry verticals.
Cohen is frequently interviewed as an ERP, artificial intelligence and machine learning expert and industry leader. He started his career with the successful launch of an ERP reseller business in France. Cohen later joined Intentia, a Swedish ERP company.
He studied mathematics and electronic engineering at Tel Aviv University.
George Mathew serves as Managing Director at Insight Partners. He focuses on venture stage investments in AI, ML, Analytics, and Data companies as they are establishing product/market Fit.
He brings 20+ years of experience developing high-growth technology startups including most recently being CEO of Kespry. Prior to Kespry, George was President & COO of Alteryx where he scaled the company through it’s IPO. Previously he held senior leadership positions at SAP and salesforce.com. He has driven company strategy, led product management and development, and built sales and marketing teams.
George holds a Bachelor of Science in Neurobiology from Cornell University and a Masters in Business Administration from Duke University, where he was a Fuqua Scholar.
Lt. Gen. Edward Cardon, Ret.
Lt. Gen. Edward Cardon, Ret.
Lt. Gen. Edward Cardon (U.S. Army, retired) serves as chair of C3 AI’s Federal Systems. Following his graduation from the United States Military Academy at West Point, he served as a commissioned officer in the U.S. Army for 36 years. During his distinguished military career, he commanded troops in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, including four separate deployments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Most recently, Lt. Gen. Cardon, Ret. served as the Director of the U.S. Army Office of Business Transformation. In this role, he helped establish the Army Futures Command, which was the most significant Army command restructuring in more than 45 years. Prior to that, he headed the Army Cyber Command from 2013 to 2016, where he transformed the command into a world-class cyber force, including development of the cyber task force focused on combating ISIS.
Lt. Gen. Cardon, Ret. holds master’s degrees in National Security and Strategic Studies from the National War College and the United States Naval Command and Staff College. He serves on the Advisory Board for the Applied Research Laboratory for Intelligence and Security, which supports the U.S. Intelligence Community and Department of Defense; is a senior counselor to the Cohen Group, a global strategic consulting firm; and is the CEO of Touchstone Futures. He also serves on the Advisory Board for the Foundation for Defense of Democracies’ Center on Military and Political Power and is a Member of the Council of Foreign Relations.
Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, Ret.
Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, Ret.
Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster (U.S. Army, retired) served as a commissioned officer in the United States Army for 34 years after his graduation from the United States Military Academy at West Point. A veteran of the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom, Lt. Gen. McMaster, Ret. has held multiple roles in the United States Central Command. From 2017 to 2018, he served as the 26th assistant to the president for National Security Affairs.
Lt. Gen. McMaster, Ret. is the Fouad and Michelle Ajami Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and a lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. He is also the Bernard and Susan Liautaud Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute at Stanford. He serves as the Japan Chair at the Hudson Institute and Chairman of the Center for Political and Military Power at the Foundation for Defense of Democracy.
Lt. Gen. McMaster, Ret. holds a PhD in military history from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The author of two books – Battlegrounds: The Fight to Defend the Free World and Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam—he also hosts the podcast, Battlegrounds: International Perspectives on Crucial Challenges to Security and Prosperity.